eco urbanism:
BAU425 Chongqing Eco Valley City

Chongqing City, China

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Discipline

Planning

Typology

Urban planning and design

City

Chongqing City, China

Date

2010

Status

Invited competition

Client

Chongqing Planning Bureau

Program

High density greenfield urbanisation

eco urbanism

introduction
China is seeking to stimulate urban growth in its West provinces. This development zone is situated on the northern periphery of Chongqing, one of China’s megacities. Previously planned but not yet developed as an industrial district the site remains greenfield, with substantial existing vegetation, farming and some settlements with heritage value. The new postindustrial planning brief stipulates the area as an oversized residential cluster supporting the neighbouring hi-tech zone. It is mountainous and suffers from sweltering summer heat.

BAU’s urban design structure emerges from the site’s topography, hydrology, and wind direction. A park network and eco corridors are situated in both the valleys and along the ridges of the N-S oriented mountain range. Road morphology is likewise structured along NS contour lines. Two light rail lines anchor the public transport at four stations.

Land use is organized using a networks zoning strategy. It not only provides a degree of certainty for the city but also guarantees diversity and encourages complexity. Importantly the networks system provides a number of hybrid zones which enables the city a high degree of flexibility to adopt more of one use than another, and enables it to change over time without having to rezone the city’s planning scheme.

business segmentation
This proposal goes beyond the competition brief for a residential suburb. It proposes that the new district be a mix of living and working. In order to attract businesses we propose an industry theme unlike any other in Chongqing. This theme is not a standard segmentation, ie by types of industry, but is a segmentation based on an activity carried out within the entire spectrum of industries: research and development in ecologically sustainability.

There is little doubt that throughout the next four decades each and every industry will devote increasing capital into making their products or services more environmentally sustainable. The Eco Valley Sustainable R&D theme proposal is based on the assumption that many businesses would benefit from locating their Eco R&D in a location specializing in such research, and where the city is in fact an example in best practice of sustainable urbanism. Businesses would find their mission easier to fulfill in a district where they are surrounded by others in similar pursuit. Exchange of ideas, and business networking can bring about constructive cross fertilization. Appropriate staff would be attracted to such an eco work environment, as well as by the sustainable city itself.

creative culture
R&D is creative by definition. The most successful creative cities support what has been coined “the creative class”. It is well documented that such a creative class seek places of tolerance and places where there is a complex urban mix of activity and diverse subcultures. China’s new mono-functional districts of large scale projects are not conducive to the emergence of complex urbanity. Eco Valley applies a new model in order to provide maximum potential for the emergence of culture and community. The Eco Valley R&D zone is not an isolated office park zone; by utilizing our Networks Cities strategy the R&D can benefit from adjacency to many other city land-uses and programs (see section on networks cities).

landmark district
To reinforce the city’s image as a unique place of Eco R&D, a number of landmark nodes are planned. These nodes are where universities team together with private enterprise in purpose built facilities. Lecture and exhibition facilities provide the broader public with the opportunity to learn of the many aspects of sustainability. The four sub-centers of the district are given sub-themes of Eco R&D: Cradle to cradle; intelligent infrastructure; renewable energy; and bio-diversity.

eco valley adopts a new form of self-sufficient urbanism
biodiversity

Connected eco corridors with urban farming, recreational green, and protected green areas
– Long term management plan to conserve existing or create new on-site native habitats, water bodies, wetlands and their buffers.
– Community based (community garden) food production to support local economic value. Green roofs and green streets with bioswales and infiltration ditches
– Landscape and vegetation areas are largely self-sufficient by locally adapted plants & require little irrigation

energy
Certified Green Building:
– Every New Construction is China 3-star rated (Ministry of Housing and Urban Rural Development) and reduces the energy demand by 65% compared to 1980 benchmark.
Heat Island control:
– Average daily outdoor heat island intensity for built-up areas is not higher than 1.5°C.
– Wind corridors for efficient heat dissipation from built-up areas
– Tree lined and shaded streets, green roofs or cool roofs (high SRI) for enhanced microclimate
Onsite renewable energy sources:
– Major potential by Biomass energy and Surface Geothermal energy,
– Minor potential by Low Speed Urban Wind turbines, and PVT-solar concentrators
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) District system:
– Proximately 80% of the district’s heating and cooling consumption is provided by the district plant
Infrastructure Energy efficiency:
– Smart electricity grid to balance peak power demands.

water
Ecological Sanitation System
– Reduced dependency on municipal water supply
– Preference for modular and cost-efficient solutions based on decentralised partial-flow systems
– Conservation of resources by safe and hygienic recovery and reuse of nutrients and organics in the water
– Improvement of health by minimising the introduction of pathogens from human excreta into the water cycle
Onsite Waste-Water Treatment
– Treatment of blackwater to recycle water in drinking quality by Small Footprint MBR (Memb. Bio Reactor)
Sustainable Urban Drainage System
– Comprehensive stormwater management plan that retains on site minimum 80% of rainfall trough infiltration, evapotranspiration or reuse

waste
Recycling or reuse stations
– On every block or at least every 250m, containers for: paper, cardboard, glass, plastics, metal
Valley central utility corridor connected to Eco-tech recycling facility.
– Cleaner environment and get garbage vehicles off the road.
– Onsite processing of organic waste into energy and fertilizers, which are used for local urban farming
Recycling and salvage of 50% nonhazardous construction and demolition debris

2000-2005

Melbourne

Urban Design

Kyneton

Mixed Use

Office

Residential

2015

Culture

Healthcare

Nanjing

Playgrounds

Public

Public Landscapes

Sports

Urban Landscapes

2005-2010

Hotel

Suzhou

Shanghai

Education

2014

Hangzhou

Jiangyin

Structures & Pavillions

Wuxi

Planning

2013

Retail

2012

Fuding

Shaoxing

Chongqing

Hospitality

Kunshan

Office

Wuhan

Hotel

Healthcare

Cixi

Ningbo

Meishan

Canberra

2011

Jingzhou

Private Landscapes

Chengdu

Hospitality

Culture

1990-2000

Xiamen

Residential

Hopetoun

Caofeidian

Huai’an

Xi'an

Xinyu

Mixed Use

Retail

Sports

BAU009 house in the sky

surreal adjacencies:
BAU019 Marymount Residence, Guest Accommodation, Stable + Office

mini-city of culture:
BAU590 Nanjing Pukou Haiqiao Community Service Center

keeping a low profile:
BAU 214 Suzhou Qingshan Hotel Phase I

positive space, human scale, and a blue-green net:
BAU 213-1 Jindi Yunhu Housing

dis-integrated guest houses :
BAU495 Pine Pillow Retreat

don’t look at me, don’t look at me:
BAU436 Nanjing Jiangning Demonstration Kindergarten

new buildings, old topography:
BAU424 Suzhou Qingshan Hotel Phase 2

don’t just re-use the typology, improve it!
BAU310-1 Hangzhou Changbanxiang Housing

defining the perimeter, programming the centre, inhabiting them both:
BAU238 Town Plaza, Xinqiao, Jiangyin

turning outside-in:
BAU199-2 Wuxi Fudi Forte Parktown Sales Pavilion

beyond PODS, networks, and nodes:
BAU552 Chengbei Urban Design project, Nanjing

podium and bill(ding)board:
BAU547 Nanjing Yaxi Town Central Hospital

inner sanctuary, outer crust:
BAU546 Nanjing Gaochun Qiqiao Hospital

an excessive minimalism:
BAU478-A U-Park Incubator, Shang Qing Huai, Nanjing

a plane of reference:
BAU474 Nanjing Zijin Gaochun Science and Technology City

rips in the fabric by place:
BAU461 Nanjing Tangshan Tourist Resort South District

other ideas of hospital:
BAU446 Fuding Hospital

architecture AND terrain:
BAU445 Suzhou Hi-tech District Cultural Center

crust: in-between and on the edge
BAU426 Shaoxing Jianhu Keyan Tourist Resort Planning

eco urbanism:
BAU425 Chongqing Eco Valley City

microcosm:
BAU348 Kunshan Hyper Complex

beyond the picturesque:
BAU347 Kunshan White Pagoda Park

don’t just re-use the typology, improve it!
BAU310 Hangzhou Changbanxiang Housing

building a community not just housing:
BAU302 Shanghai Ludi Baoshan

upside down program – ‘private’ circulation becoming ‘public’ circulation:
BAU254 Shanghai Wai Gao Qiao Culture Centre

extra-large private space as public space:
BAU199 Parktown, Housing, Fudi Forte, Wuxi

mini-me:
BAU197 Jindi Sanlin Pavilion

staggering:
BAU191 Wuhan Cuiwei Housing

urban camouflage:
BAU227 Hangzhou Sports Centre

positive space, human scale, and a blue-green net:
BAU213_1 Jindi Yunhu Housing

the resort at the end of the yellow dirt road:
BAU543 Emerald Village at Soul Bay

critical regionalism and abstraction:
BAU487 Nanjing Yaxi Citta-Slow

hospital for the ill, health care for the healthy, aged care for the elderly: BAU469 Zhaoxiang Hospital

communities as schools and schools as communities:
BAU408 Networks School Zhangjiang

tear open the package: BAU247 Qingpu NGS Supermarket

urban sponge:
BAU324 Cixi Commercial and Culture Center

lyrical islands in pragmatic seas:
BAU530_1 Nanjing Gaochun Su-Wan Interchange Hub

fractured enormity:
BAU281 Chongqing Huarun

ring roads AND peripheral parks:
BAU243 Shanghai Ring Park

simple box OR 3 points in space – you choose:
BAU204-2 Ningbo Wanda Office

many utopias:
BAU129 Xinhu Pearl City Housing Development

a close family:
BAU125 Zhejiang Power Company HQ

stretching, squeezing, bending, trimming:
BAU550 Huanglong Xigu Urban Design

BOTH networks AND objects:
BAU497 Wyndham Cove Eco Sub-urb

ethics, democracy, difference:
BAU470 towards a socially sustainable Canberra

warp and woof:
BAU460 Jingzhou Museum

sustainable technologies for clean living:
BAU396 Nanjing Residential

network of learning:
BAU341 Yushanwan School

not in galleries, but a way of seeing:
BAU338 Jingqiao Ramp Restaurant

shopping sandwich:
BAU321 Jiangyin Wuxing Commercial Centre

celebrating the collective, the intimate, the sustainable, and the local:
BAU312 Suzhou School

21st century Ponte Vecchio:
BAU287 Shanghai 2010 World Expo Bridge

antidote: not another ghetto city:
BAU285 Chengdu North Central

at last …finally …some diversity:
BAU282 Jindi Sanlin Office

recycling and beyond
BAU264 Jiashan Lu Apartment Block

an assemblage of difference:
BAU256 Shanghai Hongqiao Performing Arts Center

streets as shelters, bars as amphitheaters, landscapes as playgrounds:
BAU235 Jinqiao Community Bars

reduce, reuse, recycle:
BAU220 Shanghai Sculpture Space

binary oppositions defining a field of operation – all we wanted was a park:
BAU122 Xiamen International Exhibition Centre

the hotel as microcosm of the city:
BAU018 Marque Hotel

…very strange:
BAU016 Penny Lane

the beautiful and the extraordinary:
BAU013 Hopetoun Bush Resort

a dynamic yet stable vehicle:
BAU510 Suzhou Tram Co. Headquarters

palimpsest:
BAU486A Jiangyin Docklands Park

innovation both inside and out:
BAU433 Zhangjing Nobel Lake Park & Network

exquisite corpse
BAU416 Genetic City Caofeidian

landscape becomes urban design becomes architecture:
BAU390 Duolan Dong Dong Mixed Use Complex

BAU386 Symbiotic City

repetition and difference:
BAU384 Kunshan Pavilions

no longer drowning – waving:
BAU339-2&3 Suzhou Creek Promenade

yet another point of view:
BAU339-1 Suzhou Creek Serpentine Park

ordinary not heroic, symbolic not monumental:
BAU318 Hangzhou Xiaoshan Government Headquarters

woven threads:
BAU234 Jiangyin Arbour Park

private precincts, public networks:
BAU226 Pudong Yangjing

creative networks:
BAU224 Chengdu Fenghuangshan

maximize commuication and cross fertilization:
BAU208 Linping New City Centre

more than just a technopolis:
BAU206 Hangzhou Xiasha New City Centre

a second network embracing history, smalllness, and complexity:
BAU193 Chengdu West New District

a park for everyone and everyone in their park:
BAU189 Hongqiao Park

disorder – not randonmness but beyond order:
BAU182 Chengdu East Village

mosaics of teaching, networks of learning:
BAU149 Huai’an Tertiary Education District

walled cities within a walled city:
BAU147 Xi’an High-Tech Precinct CBD

co-existence without incompatibility:
BAU138 Jiangxi Xinyu Networks City

clarity and unpredictable adjacencies:
BAU119 Jinqiao Sports & Leisure Centre

space-time conflict:
BAU544 Shanghai University Campus

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